Recently, scientists have used yeast to produce cannabinoids with medicinal and sometimes mind-altering effects. Scientists are trying to understand how these compounds are synthesized in plants and to engineer strains with specific cannabinoid profiles.
Cannabis terpenes are chemical compounds that give the plant distinctive aromas and flavors. These compounds are now being reintroduced into consumer products such as vaping oils, edibles, lotions, and beverages.
Testing is an essential component of a successful rare cannabinoid company. It can be costly, but it ensures that cannabis products are safe for consumers and meet state regulations.
Several types of testing are done during the production process to evaluate the quality and safety of the product. These include testing for pesticides, terpenes, residual solvents, and microorganisms.
Typically, various methods determine the levels of different cannabinoids and terpenes in the product. This information is used to help companies create the best products possible for their customers.
The most important aspect of cannabis testing is ensuring that results are accurate, consistent, and accessible for operators and consumers to understand. In addition, it helps build trust between the operator and the customer, leading to better relationships and stronger brand loyalty.
Cannabis sativa (Cannabis) is a plant species that produces cannabinoids for consumption. These compounds have a variety of pharmacological properties, including pain relief, anxiety, and spasticity reduction.
The flowers of dioecious female plants are a primary source of cannabinoids; their unfertilized, capitate-stalked glandular trichomes (GSTs) contain high cannabinoid precursors and terminal cannabinoids such as THC, CBD, and CBCA. Trichomes can be stalked, sessile, or bulbous in morphology and are arranged in clusters.
Cannabinoid synthesis in plants is a complex multistep process that involves several enzymes. In particular, prenyltransferase 1 is essential in CBGA biosynthesis and catalyzes the alkylation of GPP with OA to afford cannabigerolic acid (CBG).
Trichomes are produced in cannabis plants as glandular trichomes that contain secretory cells that produce cannabinoids and terpenes. They are vital to plant health and development, especially in high THC-containing genotypes.
A waxy cuticle layer holds together the trichome head and contains the primary site of cannabinoid and terpene synthesis. Several factors, including UV light and other environmental conditions, regulate the production of these compounds.
Capitate stalked trichomes, much larger than the other two trichome types, consist of epidermal and hypodermic cells that build up to a basal cell and then attach to a resin-filled gland head. These gland heads contain the largest cannabinoids and terpenes, which is why they are popular with growers and extractors.
Stalked trichomes are produced throughout the flowering process and increase exponentially with time to a maximum of around eight weeks. It is accompanied by a gradual decrease in the size of glandular heads, which then dehisce, secrete resin, and undergoes senescence as they mature.
During extraction, a solvent such as CO2 or butane separates specific cannabinoid compounds from cannabis plant material. These solvents are typically flammable and toxic, but they can be safely used for commercial production with proper safety controls.
Solvents can also be combined in various combinations to yield different cannabinoid compounds. For example, a mixture of methanol and acetone can produce higher extract yields than ethyl acetate and water.
Another common solvent for extracting cannabinoids is ethanol, a food-grade alcohol made from fermenting plant sugars in corn. It can separate the plant’s trichomes and dissolve the cannabinoids and terpenes in the flower, leaves, and stalks.
Another method of cannabinoid extraction involves using edible oils such as coconut or olive oil, which are gently heated and infused with decarboxylated cannabis flowers. The resulting solution is usually a mix of fat-soluble cannabinoids, terpenes, waxes, and other compounds from vegetable oil.